Prelims Focus

Prelims Focus – 2nd April 2024

Punnett Square

In News: Punnett squares are helpful to predict the possible genetic outcomes of the offspring when two individuals with known genotypes are crossed.

  • The Punnett Square is named after British geneticist Reginald Punnett.
  • Along the top and side of the grid, the possible genetic traits of one parent on one side and the other parent on the other side are listed. Then these squares are filled by combining the traits from each parent.
  • Each square correctly represents a possible combination of traits that their offspring could inherit. It’s an easy manner to visualize the possibilities of various traits showing up in the offspring.
  • A Punnett Square is a beneficial device that enables prediction of the variations and possibilities attributable to pass-breeding.

Genetic Profiling

In News: The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) is carrying out the genetic profiling in order to add the details of the elephants to a national database.

  • It is information about changes in precise genes, gene expression, or chromosomes in cells or tissue of someone.
  • They can also be a sign that a person has an increased threat of developing a particular disease or condition or of getting a child or other family member with the disease or condition. 
  • A genetic profile can be used to assist diagnose diseases, plan treatment, or find out how well treatment is working.
  • In forensic science, genetic profiling is used for identifying people based totally on DNA proof, such as in criminal investigations or paternity testing.

International Network for Terrestrial Research and Monitoring in the Arctic (INTERACT)

In News: According to INTERACT research stations in the Arctic, more than 1,000 billion tonnes of ice have been lost in the past four decades.

    • INTERACT is an infrastructure project for studying the environmental changes going on in the Arctic and surrounding areas. Established under the auspices of SCANNET, an existing Arctic network.
    • The network spans throughout northern Europe, the US, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and Scotland, as well as stations in northern alpine areas.
    • It is a great initiative geared toward constructing ability for research and tracking across the Arctic.
  • Importance
    • Capacity Building: A main aim is to make studies less difficult by presenting access to stations, sources, and understanding for scientists worldwide.
    • Multidisciplinary Approach: Research goes beyond just climate change. It encompasses various fields like:
      • Glaciology (ice research)
      • Permafrost (frozen ground)
      • Climate
      • Ecology
      • Biodiversity
      • Biogeochemical cycling (motion of factors between dwelling and non-living components of the surroundings)
    • International Collaboration: Scientists from all over the world collaborate on the usage of INTERACT’s infrastructure and expertise. This is important for tackling complex environmental issues.


Recent News:

The INDRA app was launched during an event held by the School of Naval Oceanology & Meteorology and Indian Naval Meteorological Analysis Centre at the Southern Naval Command to celebrate World Meteorological Day.


  • The INDRA app, developed by BISAG in collaboration with the Indian Navy, will provide weather information and forecasts to facilitate quick and informed decision making. 
  • BISAG is an autonomous scientific society focused on technology development and management, research, capacity building, and technology transfer in the field of geo-spatial technology. 
  • It operates in three main areas: Satellite Communication, Geo-informatics, and Geo-spatial technology under the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology.

Konda Reddi Tribes

Recent News:

The traditional knowledge of the Konda Reddi tribe, who live in the Papikonda hill range in the Godavari region and are classified as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group, has been found to be valuable and beneficial.


  • The Konda Reddis are a tribal group in Andhra Pradesh living along the Godavari river and in the hilly forests of Godavari and Khammam districts. 
  • They speak Telugu with a unique accent and have exogamous septs for marriage. 
  • Their family structure is patriarchal and they practise monogamy, but polygamous families exist. 
  • They follow Folk Hinduism and have their own social control institution and village headman. 
  • They are primarily shifting cultivators and rely on forest resources for their livelihood, supplementing their income by selling forest produce. 
  • Their staple food is jowar.
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