Daily Current Affairs for UPSC

Infrastructure and Connectivity along LAC with China

Syllabus- Security [GS Paper-3]


India has accelerated the efforts to improve infrastructure and connectivity along the Line of Actual Control with China.

Key highlights 

  • Enhanced Connectivity and Development
      • The Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Arunachal Pradesh, a contested border region between India and China, has seen significant tendencies in infrastructure and connectivity in recent years.
  • Boosting Connectivity
      • The Indian Army has been instrumental in connecting remote regions of the state, rushing up efforts to enhance infrastructure along the LAC.
      • It has both military and civilian importance, boosting tourism and quickening the Army’s moves.
      • The work on the 2,400-km-long Trans Arunachal Highway is nearing final touch, and the focus of infrastructure development has shifted to the trans-frontier toll road, so as to connect all of the valleys in the country.
      • It aims to significantly lessen effort and time for both army and widespread movement, mainly in jap Arunachal Pradesh.
      • Nechiphu Tunnel: It is the 500-metre long Nechiphu Tunnel on Balipara-Chariduar-Tawang Road in Arunachal Pradesh. This tunnel, along the under construction Sela Tunnel, will provide all-weather connectivity to the strategic Tawang Region.
  • Enhancing Surveillance:
    • In the previous couple of years, the Army has appreciably upgraded firepower and infrastructure along the LAC in the Tawang region of Arunachal Pradesh.
    • The tempo of capability and infrastructure development in the rest of the state has gained substantial tempo in the past few years.
    • This consists of road infrastructure, bridges, tunnels, habitat and different storage centers, aviation facilities, and upgradation of communications and surveillance.

Associated Challenges

  • Geographical Challenges: The regions along the LAC in Arunachal Pradesh are characterized by high-altitude terrain and sparse population.
    • It makes infrastructure development and connectivity a tough task.
  • Educational Limitations: The remote regions along the LAC have restrained access to quality education.
    • It is a substantial undertaking as it affects the quality of life for the citizens of those regions.
  • economic Constraints: The cost of infrastructure development in those remote and difficult terrains is high.
    • It poses a huge task in terms of resource allocation and control.
  • Security Concerns: The proximity to the contested border with China adds a layer of complexity to the infrastructure improvement method.
    • Ensuring the security of the infrastructure initiatives and the employees concerned is a major challenge.
  • Lack of Last-Mile Connectivity: While essential highways and different connectivity developments are being built, presenting last-mile connectivity to the most ahead pposts is a significant challenge.

Related Government Initiatives

  • Inter-country Border Areas Development Programme (ISBADP): It aims to provide centers for the socio-economic development of the people living along the Inter-State border with Assam.
    • Projects taken up under this project are to make certain sustainability and offer value addition to any given product.
  • Border Areas Development Department (BADP): It is to meet the special developmental needs and well-being of the human beings residing in remote and inaccessible regions situated near the International border (IB).
    • The provision of important infrastructure facilities and opportunities for sustainable living could help combine those regions with the hinterland, creating a high-quality notion of care by the country and encourage people to stay on in the border areas, leading to safe and secure borders.
  • Infrastructure Development by Ministry of Home Affairs: It includes the construction of fences, floodlighting, roads, Border Out Posts (BOPs), Company Operating Bases (COBs), and deployment of technological answers along the India-Pakistan, India-Bangladesh, India-China, India-Nepal, India-Bhutan, and India-Myanmar borders.
  • Vibrant Villages Programme: It has been instrumental in developing remote villages in Arunachal Pradesh.
    • Under this programme, first health centres and houses of teachers are being upgraded, and concrete roads are being laid.


  • The improvement of infrastructure and connectivity along the LAC in Arunachal Pradesh is a testament to India’s dedication to securing its borders and enhancing the lives of its citizens in border regions. 
  • While challenges remain, the progress made so far is promising and sets the stage for a more connected and secure future.

Source: The Hindu

UPSC Mains Practice Question

Q.Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management. (2016).

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