Daily Current Affairs for UPSC

India-Canada strategic Dialogue

Syllabus- International Relations [GS Paper-2]

ContextPrior to the G20 Foreign Ministers meeting in March in New Delhi, the bilateral meeting of the foreign ministers of India and Canada, dubbed the “India-Canada Strategic Dialogue,” recently took place.

Key Highlights 

  • Given the shared objective of a free, open, and inclusive Indo-Pacific, India welcomed Canada’s release of its Indo-Pacific Strategy.
  • What were the Meeting’s High Points?
  • The Ministers talked about expanding our close inter-ethnic ties, promoting security cooperation, facilitating migration and mobility, and deepening our economic collaboration.
  • India is a crucial partner for Canada in the Indo-Pacific, according to the Canadian FM. In exchange, Canada can be a dependable source of vital minerals, a powerful ally in the transition to a greener economy, and a sizable investor.
  • Objectivity of the Meeting
  • After a freeze between 2020 and 2022, the Canadian FM’s visit is anticipated to open the door for a sustained reset in India-Canada relations.
  • The freeze was sparked by a number of issues, including attacks on Canadian Khalistani groups’ targets of Indian ancestry, Canadian remarks regarding Indian farmer demonstrations, and India’s suspension of diplomatic discussions in retaliation.
  • When Canada allowed a Khalistani independence “referendum” in 2022, New Delhi complained and retaliated with a travel warning that cautioned against hate crimes in Canada.
  • Both nations welcome the “Early Progress Trade Agreement” (EPTA) as a first step towards the “Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement” (CEPA), in addition to attracting investment from Canadian capital.
  • None of the official statements addressed the issue of Khalistani activities in Canada, which has contributed to the strained relationship between India and Canada.
  • India’s strategic importance will only grow as the country’s economy grows, giving Canada and India more chances to strengthen their relationship.
  • Both nations have a suspicion of China and want to strengthen their supply chains, expand trade ties, and encourage more people to move between them.

What is the Indo-Pacific Policy of Canada?

  • Canada unveiled a new Indo-Pacific strategy that focuses on the following four areas: ASEAN, China, India, Japan, Korea, and the North Pacific
  • Canada has the largest diaspora, with 60% of international students and one in five Canadians having family ties to the Indo-Pacific region.
  • The strategy praises India’s shared tradition of democracy and pluralism while speaking forcefully about China’s challenge to the international rules-based order and human rights.
  • However, Canada acknowledges that China is its primary export destination and that cooperation with China is necessary on health and climate change issues.


  • Over the course of five years, Canada’s strategy calls for a funding commitment of $1.7 billion for infrastructure projects, increased military presence, and increased participation in regional military exercises.


  • Bolster stability, resilience, and peace.
  • Increase the resilience of supply chains, investments, and trade.
  • Connect people and invest in them.
  • Create a future that is green and sustainable.
  • Be a partner in the Indo-Pacific that is involved and active.

How are relations between India and Canada?

  • Political:
      • India and Canada have similar structures and procedures for their parliaments. Mr. Raj Saini, a member of the House of Commons, will serve as the Chair of the Canada-India Parliamentary Association following the general election in October 2019.
      • The Canadian High Commission in New Delhi represents Canada in India.
      • India has consulates in Toronto and Vancouver as well as a High Commission in Ottawa.
  • Economic:
      • In 2020, trade between India and Canada will amount to USD 6.4 billion. India ranked as Canada’s 13th largest trading partner and 14th largest export market in 2021.
      • More than 1,000 Canadian businesses are actively pursuing business in the Indian market, and over 400 Canadian businesses have a presence in India.
      • Indian businesses operate in Canada’s software, steel, natural resources, banking, and information technology sectors.
      • Pharma, iron and steel, chemicals, gems and jewelry, nuclear reactors, and boilers are among the goods that India exports to Canada.
      • Uranium, natural gas, oil, coal, minerals, and cutting-edge hydropower, mining, renewable energy, and nuclear energy technologies are among the most abundant resources in Canada.
  • Technologies and Sciences:
      • Promotion of industrial R&D and the creation of new IP (intellectual property) processes, prototypes, or products has been the primary focus.
      • Under the IC-IMPACTS program, the Department of Biotechnology conducts joint research projects in agri-biotech, waste management, and health care.
      • The first and only Canada-India research center of excellence is IC-IMPACTS, which stands for the India-Canada Centre for Innovative Multidisciplinary Partnerships to Accelerate Community Transformation and Sustainability.
      • A program for scientific research on Cold Climate (Arctic) Studies has been launched by the Department of Earth Science and Polar Canada.
  • Space:
      • In the area of space exploration and utilization, MOUs have been signed by ISRO and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).
      • -A number of nanosatellites have been launched from Canada by ANTRIX, ISRO’s commercial arm.
      • The Canadian first LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite was also launched by ISRO’s 100th satellite PSLV in 2018 from the Indian spaceport of Sriharikota.
  • Protection and defense:
    • India and Canada work closely together in international forums, especially the United Nations, Commonwealth, and G-20.
    • In 2015, DRDO and Canada’s Defence Research and Development Council signed a Statement of Intent (SoI) to work together.
    • In 2018, the Framework for Cooperation Between India and Canada on Countering Terrorism enhanced security cooperation.
    • Through the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Counter Terrorism, in particular, there is a lot of involvement in issues related to the fight against terrorism.

Notes about Canada

  • Canada occupies roughly the northern two-fifths of the North American continent, making it the world’s second-largest country after Russia.
  • Canada is both a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy. A constitutional monarchy means that the British monarch is the head of state, but her role is primarily ceremonial and symbolic, and elected representatives and government officials are in charge of actually running the country.
  • The 49th parallel to the north serves as the primary boundary between the United States and Canada.
  • There are several lakes in Canada, including Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Winnipeg Lake, and the five Great Lakes that border the United States: Ontario, Huron, Superior, and Michigan.


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