Daily Current Affairs for UPSC

World TB Day

Syllabus- Health [GS Paper-3]

Context- Every year on March 24, World Tuberculosis Day is observed to raise awareness about the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic and efforts to eradicate it.

Key Highlights 

  • By 2030, the World Health Organization (WHO) hopes to eradicate the TB pandemic. 
  • The organisation works with legislatures, non-administrative associations, and different accomplices to build admittance to TB avoidance, conclusion, and treatment, and to foster new instruments and systems for TB control. 
  • On World Tuberculosis Day, organizations and individuals worldwide organize events and activities to promote efforts to eradicate TB and raise awareness of the disease’s causes, symptoms, and treatment. 
  • The theme for World Tuberculosis Day this year is “Yes! We can end TB!” and it centers around encouraging pioneers from around the world to make a move to stop the TB plague. 
  • The theme emphasizes the significance of a number of factors, such as increased funding, prompt action, sectoral collaboration, the swift implementation of brand-new WHO guidelines, and novel strategies for eradicating tuberculosis.

About Tuberculosis (TB)

  • The Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria are responsible for the bacterial infection known as tuberculosis (TB). 
  • Although it can also affect the kidneys, spine, and brain, it most frequently affects the lungs. 


  • When an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks and another person inhales the bacteria, TB spreads through the air.


  • The persistent cough, chest pain, fatigue, loss of weight, fever, and night sweats are all signs of tuberculosis. 
  • However, not everyone with TB exhibits symptoms, and some may not exhibit symptoms until the disease has progressed to a more advanced stage.


  • Antibiotics can be used to treat tuberculosis, but the process can take several months and requires a combination of medications. 
  • Treatment is essential for curing the disease, preventing its spread to others, and preventing the development of drug-resistant TB. 
  • Millions of new cases and deaths occur annually due to tuberculosis (TB), particularly in low- and middle-income nations.

BCG Vaccine

  • Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin, two Frenchmen, modified a strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which causes TB in cattle, to create BCG. In 1921, it was first used on humans.
  • In 1948, BCG was first introduced in India on a limited scale, and in 1962, it was included in the National TB Control Program.
  • It protects against respiratory and bacterial infections in newborns, as well as other mycobacterial diseases like Leprosy and Buruli’s ulcer, in addition to its primary function as a TB vaccine.
  • In addition, bladder cancer and melanoma that is malignant are treated with it as an immunotherapy agent.
  • One captivating reality about BCG is that it functions admirably in a few geographic areas and not so well in others. The efficiency of a country typically increases with distance from the equator.
  • It has a high viability in the UK, Norway, Sweden and Denmark; and little or no effectiveness in countries near or on the equator, such as India, Kenya, and Malawi, where TB is more common.

Initiatives to eradicate TB

  • Global Initiatives:
      • A joint initiative titled “Find” has been launched by the World Health Organization (WHO). Treat. All. # EndTB” with the Stop TB Partnership and the Global Fund.
      • The Global Tuberculosis Report is also published by WHO.
  • India’s Initiatives:
    • Public Smart course of action (NSP) for Tuberculosis End (2017-2025), The Nikshay Environment (Public TB data framework), Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY-monetary help), TB Harega Desh Jeetega Mission.
    • Two vaccines for tuberculosis, VPM (Vaccine Projekt Management) 1002 and MIP (Mycobacterium Indicus Pranii), have been developed and identified, and a Phase 3 clinical trial of them is currently underway.
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