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OPSC Prelims-2022, GS: Answer Key - Download

Daily Current Affairs

World Malaria Report 2023

Syllabus: Health[GS Paper-2]

Context: The WHO released a report called ‘World Malaria Report 2023’.

Malaria:

  • Malaria is an illness caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. 
  • These mosquitoes are active during the nighttime. Although there are various types of Plasmodium parasite, only five can cause malaria in humans.

World Malaria Report 2023:

About:

  • The World Health Organization’s annual World malaria report provides an in-depth and current evaluation of the progress and efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria worldwide.

Overview of the current trends in the global malaria burden:

  • The report for this year shows that although efforts have been made to increase access to preventive measures for malaria, such as nets and medicines, the number of malaria cases has actually increased. 
  • The report states that globally, there were an estimated 249 million cases in 2022, surpassing the number of cases in 2019 before the pandemic.

Concerns regarding the impact of climate change:

  • The report for this year includes a new section that discusses the connection between climate change and malaria. 
  • Factors like temperature, humidity, and rainfall can affect the behaviour and survival of the mosquitoes that carry malaria. 
  • Extreme weather events like heat waves and flooding can also impact the spread and impact of the disease. 
  • For instance, a significant flood in Pakistan in 2022 caused a fivefold increase in malaria cases. 
  • Additionally, challenges such as conflicts, resource limitations, and resistance to drugs and insecticides hinder efforts to combat malaria.

Key Features:

  • The report highlights the successful introduction of the first WHO-recommended malaria vaccine in three African countries. 
  • In October 2023, a second effective vaccine was also recommended. 
  • The availability of these vaccines is expected to improve access and allow for widespread deployment in Africa. 
  • Additionally, many countries with low malaria rates have made progress towards eliminating the disease, with a significant decrease in reported cases.

What does the report mention about India?

  • The World Malaria Report revealed that India had the highest number of malaria cases in the South-East Asia region in 2022, accounting for 66% of all cases. 
  • Additionally, India and Indonesia were responsible for approximately 94% of malaria-related deaths in the region. 
  • The report also highlighted that nearly half of all cases in the area were caused by Plasmodium vivax, a parasite that affects humans.
  • India has reduced the number of malaria cases by over 50% and the number of malaria deaths by over 66% since 2000.
  • India implemented its first National Framework for Malaria Elimination in 2016 with the goal of becoming malaria-free by 2027 and eliminating the disease by 2030. 
  • The government also increased funding for the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in 2019 and provided greater support to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.

Source: TH

Practice question:

Q. Bring out the India-specific findings in World Malaria Report 2023?
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