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Simplified Fundamentals

Types of Majorities in Parliament: Simple Majority

About

  • In the context of a legislature, the term ‘Majority’ refers to the minimum variety of votes required to skip a decision or a regulation. As a concept, essential to parliamentary structure, it ensures that any decision made has the aid of a plurality of the contributors of the legislature, accordingly upholding the fundamental ideas of democracy.

Majority in Indian Parliament

  • The Indian Parliament, as the apex legislative body of the country, is entrusted with the duty of enacting legal guidelines and shaping the path of governance. 
  • Moreover, being the supreme legislative body of the world’s biggest democracy, it has to make certain that its every selection is made in accordance with the democratic ideas of plurality support. 
  • It is on this requirement that the Indian Parliament operates on various types of majorities for numerous types of decision-making procedures.

Types of Majorities in Indian Parliament

  • The following four types of majorities are required to determine the numerous subjects in the Indian Parliament:
  • Simple Majority
  • Absolute Majority
  • Effective Majority
  • Special Majority
  • The meaning, usage, and importance of these forms of majorities are discussed within the sections that follow.

Simple Majority

  • The ‘Simple Majority’ is likewise referred to as the Ordinary Majority, Functional Majority or Working Majority.
  • It refers to a majority of the members present and vote casting in the House.
    • For example, suppose 324 members are present and vote casting within the Lok Sabha. In this case,
    • Simple Majority = [324/2 + 1] = 163.

Usage of Simple Majority

  • Article 100 of the Indian Constitution states that besides as otherwise mentioned in this Constitution, all questions at any sitting of both Houses or joint sitting of the Houses will be determined by means of a majority of votes of the participants present and balloting.
  • This way that the simple majority is the general rule prescribed by using the Constitution for the determination of questions in the Parliament.

Cases where Simple Majority is Significant 

  • The ‘Simple Majority’ is required within the following instances:
  • Passing of Ordinary Bills, Money Bills, and Financial Bills.
  • Passing of the Adjournment Motion, No Confidence Motion, Confidence Motion, Censure Motion, and Motion of Thanks.
  • Removal of the Vice-President within the Lok Sabha (Article 67).
  • Approval of the imposition of the President’s Rule (Article 356).
  • Approval of the Proclamation of Financial Emergency (Article 360).
  • Election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha (Article 93).
  • Election of the Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha (Article 89).
  • Passing of a decision by means of the Lok Sabha for disapproving the continuance of the National Emergency (Article 352).
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