UPSC Editorial Analysis

Significance of Border Peace Tranquility Agreement between India and China

[GS Paper 2 - International Relations, India and its Neighborhood]

Context – India and China, historical adversaries who fought a war in 1962, reached their first-ever border agreement, known as the Border Peace and Tranquility Agreement (BPTA), in 1993, following years of border disputes. The BPTA aimed to maintain peace along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and reduce the risk of unplanned confrontations.

The Border Peace and Tranquility Agreement (BPTA) signed between India and China holds immense significance in shaping the geopolitical landscape of the region. In the wake of historical border tensions and occasional skirmishes between the two Asian giants, the agreement aims to establish a framework for maintaining peace and stability along their disputed borders.

Historical Background of BPTA

  • The BPTA was negotiated in the aftermath of the Sumdorong Chu standoff, marking a significant diplomatic achievement in the early 1990s. The agreement was signed in 1993 during the tenure of PV Narasimha Rao as PM.

  • The agreement committed both nations to avoid using or threatening force against each other. It emphasized strict adherence to the LAC and mutual reduction of military forces to maintain friendly relations.

  • While it played a crucial role in maintaining peace for nearly two decades, the BPTA also spurred infrastructure development and frequent incidents, ultimately leading to the Galwan clash in 2020.

Ambiguity Surrounding LAC

  • Inherent Ambiguity: The primary issue undermining border agreements is the inherent ambiguity surrounding the LAC, which was embedded in the BPTA.

  • LAC Problem: India’s discomfort with the term “LAC” proposed by China in 1959 remained a contentious issue.

  • Ambiguous Formulation: The BPTA allowed both sides to clarify the LAC wherever necessary, implying a lack of shared perception about the 1959 LAC.

  • Compromised Clarity: This formulation didn’t definitively reject China’s version of the LAC but aimed to prevent constant confrontation.

Impact on Subsequent Agreements

  • Positive Developments: The BPTA paved the way for additional agreements, such as confidence-building measures in the Military Field along the LAC (1996) and the appointment of Special Representatives (2003).
  • Unfinished Business: Negotiations for a final boundary settlement stalled, and the mechanisms to clarify LAC claims remained incomplete.

Infrastructure Development and Tensions

  • Race for Facts on the Ground: Ambiguity over the LAC drove both countries to strengthen their claims through infrastructure development and increased patrols.

  • Frequent Encounters: Frequent encounters between patrols exacerbated tensions along the border.

  • Unforeseen Consequences: The BPTA inadvertently contributed to a slowdown in boundary negotiations, as both sides aimed to bolster their positions along the LAC.

Challenges and Limitations:

  • While the BPTA represents a significant diplomatic achievement, challenges and limitations persist. The border dispute remains unresolved, and occasional flare-ups continue to test the resilience of the agreement.

  • The lack of a comprehensive resolution mechanism for the border issue remains a notable shortcoming, requiring sustained diplomatic efforts to bridge the gaps and achieve a lasting solution.

Economic Implications:

  • The BPTA’s positive impact on economic relations between India and China cannot be overstated. A stable and peaceful border environment encourages increased economic cooperation, trade, and investment.

  • Both nations stand to benefit from enhanced connectivity and collaboration, unlocking new opportunities for economic growth. The BPTA, therefore, serves as a catalyst for fostering a conducive environment for economic engagement between two of the world’s fastest-growing economies.

Strategic Considerations:

  • From a strategic perspective, the BPTA contributes to building trust and confidence between India and China. In an era marked by geopolitical uncertainties, the agreement provides a foundation for constructive engagement and cooperation.

  • By preventing the militarization of the border areas and promoting transparency in military activities, the BPTA helps mitigate the risk of inadvertent confrontations that could have broader strategic implications.


The BPTA reached 30 years ago, marking a significant milestone in India-China relations. However, its legacy remains deeply contested and fraught with ambiguities. As both nations navigate the complexities of their relationship, the BPTA stands as a testament to the importance of diplomatic dialogue and mutual understanding in addressing long standing disputes and building a foundation for lasting peace. The agreement’s continued relevance underscores the imperative of sustained efforts towards resolving the broader border issue and maintaining stability in the region. As the ongoing border crisis unfolds, the challenges in achieving a lasting resolution and fostering peaceful coexistence between the two nations persist.

SOURCE: The Indian Express

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