OPSC Prelims-2022, GS: Answer Key - Download

Prelims Focus

Prelims Focus- 20th November 2023

1.Progress Toward Measles Elimination

In News: Progress Toward Measles Elimination-Worldwide, 2000–2022, report was recently released by  the World Health Organization and US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  • Global scenario: 
    • During the COVID-19 pandemic, global coverage of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) fell to its lowest level since 2008. 
    • Between 2000 and 2022, measles vaccination is estimated to have prevented approximately 57 million deaths worldwide. 
  • Situation in India: 
    • Around 11,000,000 children in India missed their crucial first  measles vaccine in 2022.  
    • This places India among the top 10 countries with the highest number of children who missed their first vaccine. 
    • India is also among the 37 countries with major or disruptive epidemics, with 40,967 reported measles cases in 2022. 
  • What is measles? 
    • Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus. 
    • It spreads easily when an infected person breathes, coughs or sneezes. 
    • It can cause serious illness, complications and even death.  
    • It can affect anyone, but is most common in children.  
    • It infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body. 
    • Symptoms: high fever, cough, runny nose and  rash all over the body. 
    • Treatment: Vaccination is the best way to prevent catching or spreading measles to other people. 

Initiatives: Accelerated national immunization efforts, the Measles and Rubella Partnership (formerly the Measles and Rubella Initiative) and other international partners successfully averted 56 million deaths between 2000 and 2021.

2.NEST Initiative

In News: The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC), the confederation of Indian industry, has launched an assessment and certification initiative called NEST.

  • “IGBC Nest” is the first of its kind eco-friendly, self-developed framework and certification designed to raise awareness and motivate individual homeowners to build a sustainable home at little or no additional cost. 
  • It will be launched for the residential sector, with the aim of managing and limiting carbon emissions. 
  • The goal was to reach the country’s net customs by 2070. 

Significance: “The Beehive” would help private homeowners and the housing sector  adopt green buildings to a large extent, which would help reduce electricity consumption, water use and create a healthy living space.

3.Aeronautical Society of India (AeSI)

In News: The Aeronautical Society of India (AeSI) organized an international aeronautical and aviation conference-cum-exhibition.

  • It was founded on 27 December 1948 and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, became the first patron of the society.  
  • It is India’s premier aviation, aeronautics and aviation services association.  
  • Objectives: 
    • To promote the advancement and dissemination of knowledge in aeronautics and aeronautical sciences/technologies.  
    • To strive for the growth of aviation and the aviation profession.


Context: Researchers have discovered that new biosensors can be used to study neuropeptides in the brain, allowing for a better understanding of their release, function, and regulation. This has the potential to provide insights into the role of neuropeptides in both health and disease.


  • Neuropeptides play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, but studying their functions in living organisms has been challenging due to a lack of effective tools. 
  • However, researchers have developed a series of sensors that can detect specific neuropeptides with high sensitivity and accuracy. 
  • These sensors use G protein-coupled receptors and a circularly-permuted GFP to detect the binding of neuropeptides at low concentrations, resulting in a significant increase in fluorescence. 
  • These sensors have been successfully used to measure the release of different neuropeptides in isolated pancreatic islets and brain slices, as well as in vivo in mice experiencing stressful situations. 
  • Overall, these new sensors provide a valuable toolkit for studying neuropeptide release and its role in various conditions.


Context: The Supreme Court of India has raised concerns about the long delays in the country’s adoption processes. Around 30,000 individuals hoping to become parents have to wait for an average of three years, and only a small percentage of orphaned children are adopted each year.


  • The Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) is a government body that oversees the adoption process in India. 
  • It was established in 1990 and operates under the Ministry of Women & Child Development. 
  • CARA is responsible for regulating adoption-related organizations and ensuring a smooth adoption process. 
  • It is also involved in inter-country adoptions through its membership in the Hague Convention. 
  • Adoption in India is governed by the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act and the Juvenile Justice Act, with CARA playing a role in the latter. 
  • In recent years, CARA’s powers have expanded to improve adoption processes through the introduction of an e-governance system. 
  • However, CARA faces challenges such as declining adoption rates, infrastructure issues, and criticism for its restrictions on same-sex and unmarried couples adopting. Critics also argue that current adoption laws do not adequately protect the interests of children. 
  • Proposed solutions include the development of a child-centric, optional, enabling, and gender-just adoption law.
image_pdfDownload as PDF

The Iasexam.com is now on Telegram. Click here to join our channel (@iasexamdotcom1) and stay updated with the latest current affairs, editorials and MCQ patterns

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button
Shopping cart0
There are no products in the cart!