OPSC Prelims-2022, GS: Answer Key - Download

Editorials Simplified

Importance of Saudi Arabia for India

[GS Paper 2 - International Relations]

Context – Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s India visit showcased a significant infrastructure project linking India to Europe. It also bolstered economic, energy, and defense cooperation through crucial agreements, underscoring his influential role in shaping the India-Saudi Arabia relationship. The relationship between India and Saudi Arabia has evolved significantly over the years, transcending mere economic ties to encompass strategic and geopolitical cooperation.

During his New Delhi visit, Prince Mohammed’s announcement of the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor, challenging China’s Belt and Road Initiative, marked a significant milestone in bilateral ties. His extended stay for a state visit and the inaugural India-Saudi Arabia Strategic Partnership Council meeting underscored the relationship’s growing significance.

Relations between India and Saudi Arabia

Diplomatic Cooperation

  • Diplomatic relations between India and Saudi Arabia have strengthened over time, underpinned by shared interests and converging views on various regional and global issues.
  • One of the most prominent aspects of this cooperation is India’s engagement with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), where Saudi Arabia plays a central role.
  • India’s ‘Look West’ policy has found resonance in Saudi Arabia’s ‘Vision 2030,’ which aims at diversifying the Saudi economy and reducing its dependence on oil. This convergence has paved the way for enhanced diplomatic collaboration.
  • In recent years, India and Saudi Arabia have worked closely on counter-terrorism efforts and intelligence sharing, which is critical in a region plagued by instability and extremist threats.
  • Additionally, Saudi Arabia has supported India’s position on combating cross-border terrorism, particularly concerning Pakistan-sponsored terrorism in Kashmir. This diplomatic alignment has bolstered India’s stance on global platforms.

Economic Cooperation

  • The economic dimension of the India-Saudi Arabia relationship is substantial and continues to grow. Saudi Arabia is one of India’s top trading partners in the Gulf region, with trade volumes reaching billions of dollars annually.
  • The two countries have also expanded their economic cooperation beyond traditional sectors like oil and gas into areas such as infrastructure development, renewable energy, and information technology.
  • Furthermore, India has emerged as a significant destination for Saudi investment. The Saudi Arabian Public Investment Fund (PIF) has invested in India’s technology sector, demonstrating its confidence in the Indian market.
  • These investments not only boost India’s economic growth but also create jobs and facilitate technology transfer.

Energy Security


  • Saudi Arabia plays a pivotal role in India’s energy security framework. It is one of India’s leading suppliers of crude oil, accounting for a substantial portion of India’s oil imports.
  • Ensuring a stable and affordable supply of oil is essential for India’s economic growth, and Saudi Arabia has consistently been a reliable partner in meeting this demand.
  • The close energy ties between the two countries were underlined by the signing of the Strategic Partnership Council Agreement in 2019, which included cooperation in the energy sector.
  • However, the evolving global energy landscape, with a shift towards renewables, has prompted both nations to explore diversification.
  • India’s commitment to renewable energy sources aligns with Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030, which emphasizes renewable energy production and the development of the green economy.
  • Collaborative projects in solar and wind energy, along with joint ventures in petrochemicals and refining, have become the new focal points of energy cooperation.

Regional Security

  • Saudi Arabia’s role in regional security is crucial, given its location at the crossroads of the Middle East and its influence in the Arab world.
  • India has a vested interest in a stable and peaceful Middle East, as disruptions in the region can impact its energy supplies and the well-being of its large diaspora in the Gulf. Saudi Arabia, as a regional powerhouse, plays a vital role in maintaining regional stability.
  • The Yemen conflict is a prime example of Saudi Arabia’s influence on regional security. India has consistently supported a peaceful resolution to the Yemen crisis and has welcomed Saudi Arabia’s efforts to mediate and bring stability to the region.
  • By actively engaging with Saudi Arabia on regional issues, India can contribute to peace and security in the Middle East.

Conclusion and Way Forward

The importance of Saudi Arabia for India cannot be overstated. From diplomatic cooperation to economic ties, energy security to regional stability, and the invaluable contributions of the Indian diaspora in Saudi Arabia, this relationship is multifaceted and deeply strategic. In a rapidly changing global landscape, both nations must continue to nurture and evolve this partnership, realizing its full potential for mutual benefit and the greater good of the region and the world.

As Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman continues to navigate the global stage, India is actively engaging with Saudi Arabia to bolster this pragmatic partnership for mutual benefit and regional stability.The bonds between India and Saudi Arabia serve as a testament to the power of diplomacy, collaboration, and shared interests in shaping a better future.

Practice question:

Q. “West Asia is not just a gas station for India.” Critically examine this statement in the light of the need for raising India’s diplomatic profile in the region?

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