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Difference between Fraternity in India and Idea Enshrined in Constitution

[GS Paper 2 - Indian Polity and Constitution]

Context – In the context of India’s independence struggle and the subsequent establishment of a constitutional democracy, the interplay of liberty, equality, and fraternity was deemed crucial for a diverse society on the brink of independence. The concept of fraternity, often overshadowed by liberty and equality, plays a pivotal role in the realm of politics. Philosopher Angel Puyol, in his book “Political Fraternity: Democracy beyond Freedom & Democracy,” argues that fraternity is central to the emancipation and empowerment of people.

Fraternity, as one of the core principles enshrined in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution, holds a pivotal place in the country’s democratic framework. It signifies the spirit of brotherhood and unity among citizens, transcending barriers of caste, creed, religion, and region. However, the real-world application of this lofty ideal has often fallen short of the vision set forth by the Constitution’s framers. 

Fraternity in India’s Context

  • Unique Societal Landscape: India’s fraternal bonds face unique challenges due to its history of social hierarchies and caste divisions. The shared history is marred by the caste system, hindering the principles of equality and liberty.

  • Secular Conception: To foster fraternity in India, it must be rooted in politics, where caste privileges can be challenged. Fraternity should be cultivated through political conditioning, separate from moral considerations.

Constitutional Vision of Fraternity

  • The Indian Constitution, adopted on January 26, 1950, solemnly declares its objectives in the Preamble. Among them, fraternity occupies a place of prominence, alongside justice, liberty, equality, and democracy.

  • It states, “We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens: Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.”

  • This commitment to fraternity reflects the framers’ aspiration to create a society characterized by mutual respect, social harmony, and inclusivity. It was envisioned as the cornerstone for fostering unity in diversity, transcending the fault lines of religion, caste, and class.

Challenges to Fraternity

  • Religious and Communal Tensions: One of the most glaring challenges to fraternity in India has been the persistence of religious and communal tensions. Incidents of religious violence, communal polarization, and hate speech have marred the nation’s social fabric, indicating a significant gap between constitutional ideals and ground realities.

  • Caste-Based Discrimination: The scourge of caste-based discrimination continues to plague Indian society, despite constitutional provisions for affirmative action. Dalits and other marginalized communities often face social ostracism, violence, and economic deprivation, highlighting the gap between constitutional fraternity and lived experiences.

  • Regional Disparities: India’s diverse regional identities often lead to disparities in development, leading to a sense of alienation among certain groups. Bridging these regional gaps is crucial for realizing the constitutional vision of fraternity.

  • Political Polarization: Political polarization along ideological lines has escalated in recent years. Instead of fostering healthy debates and diverse perspectives, it often results in hostility and divisiveness, undermining the spirit of fraternity.

  • Economic Inequality: While the Constitution aims to promote economic equality, the yawning gap between the rich and the poor remains a pressing concern. Economic inequality can breed social unrest and hinder the realization of fraternity.

Implications of the Gap

The disparity between the constitutional idea of fraternity and its implementation has far-reaching implications for India’s social and political landscape:

  • Social Unrest: When fraternity remains an elusive ideal, it can lead to social unrest, protests, and even violence. The lack of solidarity among citizens can threaten the nation’s stability.

  • Undermined Democracy: A society divided along religious, caste, or regional lines can undermine the functioning of democracy. It may lead to identity-based voting rather than informed decisions, jeopardizing the democratic process.

  • Economic Inefficiency: Economic disparities and unequal opportunities hinder the nation’s overall progress. A more inclusive society could unlock the full potential of its citizens and drive economic growth.

  • Global Perception: India’s international image is influenced by its internal dynamics. A lack of fraternity can tarnish its reputation as a diverse and inclusive democracy.

Need for Course Correction

To bridge the gap between fraternity in India and the constitutional ideal, several steps must be taken:

  • Education and Awareness: Promoting education and awareness about the Constitution and its principles, especially among the youth, is crucial. This can help instill a sense of civic responsibility and appreciation for diversity.

  • Strict Enforcement of Laws: Laws against hate speech, discrimination, and violence must be rigorously enforced. This sends a strong message that the government is committed to upholding the principles of fraternity.

  • Empowerment of Marginalized Communities: Policies and initiatives aimed at empowering marginalized communities, such as Dalits and tribal populations, should be implemented effectively to reduce socio-economic disparities.

  • Political Reforms: Political parties must prioritize inclusivity and discourage divisive politics. Electoral reforms that promote issue-based politics rather than identity-based politics can be beneficial.

  • Economic Reforms: Addressing economic inequality through progressive taxation, social safety nets, and equitable development policies is essential for promoting fraternity.


Fraternity is not just a constitutional ideal but a moral imperative for a diverse and pluralistic nation like India. While the Constitution articulates this principle eloquently, the challenge lies in translating it into reality. The gap between fraternity in India and the constitutional vision remains a pressing issue that requires sustained efforts from all segments of society. Only by addressing this gap can India truly realize its potential as a harmonious, inclusive, and united nation.

SOURCE: The Hindu

Practice question:

  1.  What are the various dimensions of the word fraternity enshrined in the constitution of India? How far we have achieved this goal after 75 years of independence?
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