OCS Prelims-2021, GS-1: Answer Key - Download

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Climate Change Performance Index 2023

Topic- Environment and Ecology [GS Paper-3]

Context- India is ranked among the top five countries in the world, and the best among the G20 countries on its climate change performance.

Key Highlights 

  • The annual Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI), an independent monitoring tool that tracks climate protection policy in 59 countries and the EU, placed India two positions up at the 8th place in the 2023 rankings.
  • India’s progress can be attributed to its performance, a high rating, with regard to greenhouse gas emissions and energy use. 
  • The updated nationally determined contribution of the country, as well as its announcement of net zero by 2070, have helped improve India’s outlook.
  • On the basis of parameters of Climate Policy and Renewable Energy, India gets a medium rating.
  • Though India is on track to meet its 2030 emissions goals, which is compatible with the well below 2°C goal, the country’s renewable energy pathway, according to the index, is not on track for the 2030 target.
  • Another cause for a medium rating on climate policy and renewable energy is the absence of roadmaps and concrete action plans for achieving the targets. 
  • There is mention of the need for a carbon pricing mechanism, and aggressive decentralised renewable energy programme. 
  • India’s continued coal use is another factor for its medium rating.
  • The index does not take into consideration India’s long-term strategy released at COP27.

Climate Change Performance Index

  • The Index has been published by Germanwatch, the New Climate Institute and the Climate Action Network annually since 2005.
  • It is an independent monitoring tool used for tracking the climate protection performance of 57 countries and the European Union.
  • These 57 countries and EU collectively account for more than 92% of global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions.
  • Its objective is to enhance transparency in international climate politics and enable comparison of climate protection efforts and progress made by individual countries.
  • The CCPI looks at four categories, with 14 indicators i.e. 
    • GHG Emissions (40% of the overall score)
    • Renewable Energy (20%), 
    • Energy Use (20%), 
    • Climate Policy (20%).

CCPI 2023

Performance of the countries

  • No country performs well enough in all index categories in order to achieve an overall very high rating.
  • The first three overall positions in the index remain empty.
  • Denmark, Sweden, Chile and Morocco were the four small countries that were ranked above India as 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th respectively.
  • The ranking given by CCPI places India as the only G-20 nation in the top 10 rankers.
  • However the United Kingdom ranked 11th in CCPI 2023.
  • China falls ranked 51st in CCPI 2023 and received a very low rating.
  • The United States (US) rises three ranks to 52nd. That’s still an overall very low rating.
  • The Islamic Republic of Iran ranked 63rd, placing it last in the CCPI 2023.

India’s Status

  • India has been ranked amongst top 5 countries in the world, and the best among the G20 countries.
  • India’s rank is also the best amongst all large economies.
  • India earns a high rating in the GHG Emissions and Energy Use categories, with a medium rating for Climate Policy and Renewable Energy.
  • India is on track to meet its 2030 emissions targets i.e. compatible with a well-below 2°C scenario.
  • However, the renewable energy pathway is not on the track for the 2030 target.

Rising Concerns

  • Since the last CCPI, India has updated its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and announced a net zero target to be achieved by  2070. 
  • However, proper roadmaps and concrete action plans for achieving the targets are missing.
  • The country is among the nine countries responsible for 90% of global coal production. 
  • India also plans to increase its oil, gas, and oil production by over 5% by 2030.
  • However this is incompatible with the 1.5°C target.


  • The experts suggested laying stress on a just and inclusive energy transition, as well as the need for decentralised renewable energy and capacities for rooftop photovoltaics.
  • A carbon pricing mechanism, the need for more capacities at the subnational level, and concrete action plans for achieving the targets are significant demands.
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