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Editorials Simplified

Challenges of Maritime Security in Global South

[GS Paper 2 - Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings involving India]

Context – In the vast expanse of geopolitical dynamics, the challenge of maritime security in the Global South stands as a pressing concern that demands attention and strategic collaboration. The seas have been a historically significant arena for trade, communication, and strategic maneuvering, and the Global South, comprising developing nations in Africa, Latin America, and Asia, is grappling with multifaceted challenges that impede the smooth navigation of maritime domains.

This editorial analysis aims to dissect the complexities surrounding maritime security in the Global South, exploring the root causes, implications, and potential avenues for cooperation.

Understanding Maritime Security in the Global South:

Maritime security encompasses a spectrum of challenges, ranging from piracy and illegal fishing to trafficking and territorial disputes. In the Global South, these challenges are exacerbated by a combination of historical legacies, economic vulnerabilities, and geopolitical complexities. The reliance of many nations on maritime resources for trade and sustenance further underscores the urgency of addressing these issues.

  • Piracy and Criminal Activities – Piracy remains a persistent threat in certain regions of the Global South, particularly in the waters around the Horn of Africa, the Gulf of Guinea, and Southeast Asia. Armed criminal groups exploit weak maritime governance structures, posing risks to commercial shipping and the safety of seafarers. The economic toll of piracy, coupled with its potential to escalate into broader security concerns, necessitates coordinated efforts to combat these criminal activities. 
  • Illegal Fishing and Environmental Degradation – The Global South is often vulnerable to illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing practices, depleting marine resources and undermining the livelihoods of local communities. Environmental degradation, including pollution and overfishing, poses a direct threat to food security and the ecological balance of marine ecosystems. Sustainable practices and international cooperation are imperative to address these challenges. 
  • Territorial Disputes and Geopolitical Tensions – Maritime territories in the Global South are often subject to disputes, driven by historical grievances, competing claims, and resource competition. The South China Sea dispute, for instance, involves multiple nations and has far-reaching implications for regional stability. Managing these tensions requires diplomatic dialogue, adherence to international law, and regional frameworks that promote peaceful resolutions.

Implications of Inadequate Maritime Security

The ramifications of inadequate maritime security in the Global South extend beyond regional boundaries, impacting global trade, environmental sustainability, and geopolitical stability.

  • Economic Consequences – Maritime trade is a lifeline for many countries in the Global South, and disruptions due to piracy or territorial disputes can have severe economic consequences. The cost of insurance, rerouting of shipping lanes, and delays in cargo transport contribute to increased expenses, hindering economic development. 
  • Humanitarian Concerns – Piracy and criminal activities at sea often result in human rights abuses, including hostage situations and violence against seafarers. Addressing maritime security is not only crucial for economic reasons but also for safeguarding the well-being of those who traverse these waters. 
  • Environmental Degradation – The degradation of marine ecosystems due to illegal fishing and pollution affects not only local communities but has global repercussions. Preserving marine biodiversity is essential for sustaining fisheries, mitigating climate change, and ensuring the overall health of the planet.

Avenues for Cooperation:

Addressing the challenge of maritime security in the Global South necessitates a collaborative and multifaceted approach involving regional and international stakeholders.

  • Enhanced Regional Cooperation – Regional organizations, such as the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), play a pivotal role in fostering cooperation among neighboring nations. Shared maritime challenges require joint efforts in capacity-building, information-sharing, and the formulation of common strategies. 
  • Adherence to International Law – Upholding the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is essential for resolving territorial disputes and promoting a rules-based maritime order. Nations in the Global South should actively engage in diplomatic efforts to adhere to international legal frameworks that govern maritime activities. 
  • Investment in Maritime Infrastructure – Strengthening maritime governance requires investment in infrastructure, including the development of ports, surveillance systems, and coast guard capabilities. International assistance and partnerships can support nations in the Global South in building the necessary capacities for effective maritime security. 
  • Promotion of Sustainable Practices – Combating illegal fishing and environmental degradation requires a commitment to sustainable practices. International organizations and initiatives focused on marine conservation can collaborate with nations in the Global South to implement and enforce regulations that safeguard marine ecosystems.


The challenge of maritime security in the Global South is a multifaceted issue that demands a coordinated and inclusive response. As the international community navigates these troubled waters, recognizing the interconnectedness of economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors is paramount. By fostering regional cooperation, adhering to international legal frameworks, and investing in sustainable practices, nations in the Global South can collectively address the challenges at sea and pave the way for a more secure and prosperous maritime future.

SOURCE: The Hindu

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